Small Scale Maize Milling 10

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Contents

Small Scale Maize Milling (ILO - WEP, 1984, 160 p.)

APPENDICES

APPENDIX I: EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS AND SUPPLIERS

The equipment manufactured and/or supplied by the firms listed below is designated by the following letters:

- HH

:

Husking hooks

- RHS

:

Rotary hand shellers

- FSHS

:

Free standing hand shellers

- PS

:

Powered shellers

- PM

:

Plate mills

- HM

:

Hammer mills

- SM

:

Stone mills

- RM

:

Roller mills

- VFD

:

Ventilated floor dryers

- ISD

:

In-storage dryers

- BD

:

Batch dryers

- CD

:

Continuous dryers

Manufacturers/Suppliers

Equipment



BELGIUM



DDD President,
Chauss�e de Dikkebus, 487,
8904 YPRES

SM



BRAZIL



Irmaos Nogueira SA.,
CIMAG Ltda,
Av. Ipiranga 1071,
SAO PAULO

PS



Laredo S.A.,
Rua 1 de Agosto,
11-67 CEP
17100 BAURU (SP)

PS, HM



DENMARK



ABC Hansen Comp. A/S.,
P.O. Box 3054,
DK 1508 COPENHAGEN V

PM, SM



Erling Foss Export,
Thorsgade 59,
DK-2200 COPENHAGEN N

SM



United Milling Systems Ltd.,
8 Gamle Carlsberg vej,
DK-2500 VALBY; COPENHAGEN

RM



Skjold,
P.O. Box 39,
DK 9300 SAEBY

HM, SM



FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY



AMOS Machinenfabrik Gmbh,
Postfach 1160
D-7100 HEILBRONN

RHS, PS



Iruswerke Dusslingen
J. Rilling & Sohne,
Postfach 128,
D-7401 DUSSLINGEN

SM



FRANCE



Argoud SECA
Le Mottier
38260 LA COTE ST-ANDRE

PM, HM



Ets. Champenois, S.A.,
Chamouilley,
52170 CHEVILLON

RHS, FSHS, SM



Ets. Claudien Beroujon,
280, rue des Alpes,
38290 LA VERPILLIERE

SM



Soci�t� COMIA-FAO, S.A.,
27, bd de Chateaubriand,
35500 VITRE

PS, HM, SM



Electra,
Poudenas,
47170 MEZIN

HM



Ets. A. Gaubert,
22, rue Gambetta,
B.P. 24,
16700 RUFFEC

SM



Goudard,
77260 LA FERTE SOUS JOUARD

HM



Law SECEMIA,
B.P. 15,
5, ave. du G�n�ral de Gaulle,
60304 SENLIS CEDEX

HM, RM



Moulis,
80800 MONTREDON LA BESSONIE

PM



PROMILL,
B.P. 109
28104 DREUX

HM



Renson et Cie.,
B.P. 23,
59550 LANDRECIES

RHS, FSHS, PS, PM, SM



SAMAP,
1, rue du Moulin,
B.P. 1 Andolsheim
68600 Neufbrisach

PM



Ets. Simon Fr�res,
Rue Laurent Simon
B.P. 171,
50104 CHERBOURG CEDEX

SM



Tixier Fr�res,
18120 LURY SUR ARNON

PM, HM



HONG KONG



China National Machinery Import and Export Corporation,
c/o China Resources Company,
Bank of China Building,
HONG KONG

RHS



INDIA



Allied Trading Company,
Railway Road,
AMBALA CITY 134 002

RHS, PS



Binny Engineering Company,
Meenambakkam,
P.O. Box 1111,
MADRAS 600 001

RM



Cossul & Co. Ltd.,
Industrial Area 123/367,
Fazalgang,
KANPUR

RHS, FSHS



Dandekar Brothers,
Shivagi Nagar
SANGLI (Maharashtra)

RHS



Dandekar Machine Works,
Bhiwandi,
1-421 302 Dist. Thana,
MAHARASHTRA

RHS, PS, SM



International Manufacturing Co.,
Hospital Road,
Jagraon,
LUDHIANA (Punjab)

PS



Kisan Krishi Yantra Udyog,
64 Moti Bhawan
Collectorganj,
KANPUR 208 001

HM, PM



Numex Engineers,
P.O. Box 820,
BOMBAY 400 001

PM



Rajan Trading Co.,
P.O. Box 250,
MADRAS 600 001

PM



Rajasthan State Agro Industries Corp., Ltd.,
Virat Bhawan, C-Scheme,
JAIPUR 302 006 (Rajasthan)

RHS



Union Forgings,
GT Road,
Focal Point,
Shepur
LUDHIANA

FSHS



ITALY



Ceccato Olindo Machine Snc.,
Via Giustiniani 1,
35010 ARSEGO (PD)

RHS, FSHS, PS



Favini & Co.,
Industria Meccanica,
Via Provinciale 13,
Fornova,
BERGAMO

RM



OCRIM Spa.,
Via Massarotti No. 76,
CREMONA

RM



IVORY COAST



S.A.C.M.
16, rue des Foreurs,
B.P. 4019
ABIDJAN

PM, HM



JAPAN



CeCoCo Ltd.,
P.O. Box 8,
IBARAKI CITY, OSAKA 567

RHS, FSHS



KENYA



Ndume Products Ltd.,
P.O. Box 62,
GILGIL

HM



MALAWI



Brown and Clapperton Ltd.,
P.O. Box 52
BLANTYRE

RHS, HM



NETHERLANDS



Ten Have Engineering bv
Industrieweg 11,
Postbus 27,
7250AA VORDEN

HM



PHILIPPINES



Guanko Ironworks,
102-104 Mj Cuenco Avenue,
CEBU CITY

RM



SENEGAL



SISMAR (Ex. SISCOMA)
Rue du Dr. Theze & Grammont
B.P. 3214
DAKAR

FSHS, HM



D. Seek,
KEBEMER

HM



C. Gueye
GOSSAS

HM



SWITZERLAND



Buhler Bros Ltd.,
CH-9240 UZWIL 4

RM



TANZANIA



Ubungo Farm Implements,
P.O. Box 2669
DAR ES SALAAM

RHS



UNITED KINGDOM



Alvan Blanch Development Co., Ltd.,
Chelworth
MALMESBURY, Wiltshire SN16 9SG

PS, PM, HM, VFD



E.H. Bentall & Co. Ltd.,
MALDON, Essex CM9 7NW

PM, HM, VFD, ISD, CD



Christy & Norris Ltd.,
Broomfield Road,
CHELMSFORD CM1 1SA

HM



Colman & Co. (Agricultural) Ltd.,
Ballingdon Works,
SUDBURY, Suffolk C010 6BY

VFD, BD



Cornercroft (Agriculture) Ltd.,
CONINGSBY, Lines LN4 4SN

VFD



R. Hunt and Co. Ltd.,
Atlas Works,
Earls Colne,
COLCHESTER, Essex CO6 2EP

RHS, FSHS, PM



Kamas Machinery Ltd.,
110 Hunslet Lane,
LEEDS, Yorkshire LS10 1ES

CD



Law-Denis Engineering Ltd.,
Lavenham Road,
The Beeches Industrial Estate,
Yate,
BRISTOL BS17 5QX

ISD, CD



R.A. Lister Ltd.,
Dursley
GLOS GL11 4HS

VFD, ISD



Miracle Mills, Ltd.,
Franklin Road,
LONDON SE20 8JD

HM



Ransomes, Sims & Jeffries Ltd.,
IPSWICH, Suffolk IP3 9QG

PS, FSHS



Scotmec Ltd.,
42-44 Waggon Road,
AYR (Scotland)

HM



Henry Simon Ltd.,
P.O. Box 31,
STOCKPORT, Cheshire SK3 ORT

HM, RM



Turner Grain Handling Ltd.,
Benezet Street,
IPSWICH, Suffolk 1P1 2JQ

CD



John Wilder (Engineering) Ltd.,
Hithercroft Works,
WALLINGFORD, Oxon OX10 9AR

BD



UNITED STATES



Bryant - POFF Incorp.,
P.O. Box 127,
COATESVILLE, Indiana 46121

PS



Jacobson International Inc.,
2445 Nevada Avenue North,
MINNEAPOLIS, Minnesota 55427

HM



Raidt Manufacturing Co.,
SHENANDOAH, Ohio

HH



Seedburo Equipment Co.,
1022 West Jackson Blvd.,
CHICAGO, Illinois 60607

PS, RHS

APPENDIX II: SELECTED RESEARCH, ACADEMIC AND APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTIONS INVOLVED IN GRAIN PROCESSING

BRAZIL

Funda�ao Centro Tecnologico de Minas Gerais,
MINAS GERAIS

CANADA

Canadian Hunger Foundation,
75, Sparks St.,
OTTAWA, Ontario KIP 5A5

ECUADOR

Centro de Desarrollo Industrial de Ecuador,
GUAYAQUIL

ETHIOPIA

International Livestock Centre for Africa,
ADDIS ABABA

FRANCE

Groupe de Recherches et Echanges Technologiques,
34, rue Dumont d'Urville,
75116 PARIS

INDIA

Central Food Technological Research Institute,
MYSORE 570 013

International Centre for Research in the Semi-Arid Tropics
HYDERABAD

Protein Foods & Nutrition Development Association of India,
BOMBAY

Agricultural Research Institute,
NEW DELHI

JAMAICA

Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute
KINGSTON

MEXICO

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre,
LONDRES

NETHERLANDS

Technische Hogeschool,
EINDHOVEN

NIGERIA

International Institute of Tropical Agriculture,
IBADAN

PAKISTAN

IRRI-PAK Agricultural Machinery Programme,
ISLAMABAD

Pakistan Agricultural Research Council,
ISLAMABAD

PHILIPPINES

National Grain Authority
QUOXON CITY

THAILAND

Asian Institute of Technology,
P.O. Box 2754,
BANGKOK

Thailand Institute for Scientific & Technological Research
BANGKOK

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

Ministry of Agriculture, Lands & Fisheries,
PORT-OF-SPAIN

UNITED STATES

Volunteers in Technical Assistance,
1815 North Lynn Street,
Suite 200,
ARLINGTON, Virginia 22209

ZAMBIA

Northern Technical College,
NDOLA

ZAIRE

CEDECO,
B.P. 70;
KIMPESE

APPENDIX III: BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ajayi, O.A.: Grinding in hammer mills, Report of the National College of Agricultural Engineering (Silsoe, United Kingdom, NCAE, 1980).

Beaty, H.H.; Shore, G.C.: Drying shelled corn, Circular No. 916, Cooperative Extension Service (Urbana, Illinois, University of Illinois, College of Agriculture, 1965).

Berger, J.: Maize production and the maturing of maize (Geneva, Centre d'Etude de l'Azote, 1962).

Brekke, O.L.: “Corn dry milling: Pre-tempering low moisture corn”, in Cereal Chem. (1967), Vol. 15, No. 44, pp. 521-531.

Brekke, O.L.: “Corn dry milling: Cold tempering and de-germination of corn of various initial moisture contents”, in Cereal Chem. (1969), Vol. 5, No. 46, pp. 545-549.

Brekke, O.L.: “Dry milling artificially dried corn: Roller milling of de-germinator stock at various moistures”, in Cereal Science Today (1970), Vol. 2, No. 15, pp. 37-42.

Brekke, O.L.: “Dry milling of opaque - 2 (high lysine) corn”, in Cereal Chem. (1971), Vol. 5, No. 48, pp. 499-511.

Bressani, R.; Castillo, S.V.; Guzman, M.A.: “Corn flours: The nutritional evaluation of processed whole corn flours”, in Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry (1962), Vol. 4, No. 10, pp. 308-312.

Brooker, D.B.; Bakker-Arkema, F.W.; Hall, C.W.: Drying of cereal grains (Westport, Connecticut, Avi Publishing, 1974).

Buelow, F.: Drying crops with solar heated air, Proceedings of a United Nations Conference on New Sources of Energy held in Rome in 1961 (Rome, FAO, 1961).

Christensen, C.M.; Kaufmann, H.H.: Grain storage: the role of fungi in quality loss (Minneapolis, Minn., University of Minnesota Press, 1969).

Chambers: A dictionary of science and technology (Edinburgh, Scotland, W & R Chambers Ltd., 1974).

Christian Council of Tanzania: Manually-operated grinding mills: An evaluation (Dar-es-Salaam, Department for Development Services, 1980).

Clarke, B.: A survey of cereal grinding in Africa. Report No. 190326 (Silsoe, United Kingdom, National College of Agricultural Engineering, 1980).

Commonwealth Secretariat: Guide to technology transfer in East, Central and Southern Africa (London, Commonwealth Secretariat, 1981).

Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations: Maize and maize diets: A nutritional survey. Nutritional Studies No. 9 (Rome, 1953).

Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations: Food composition tables for use in Africa (Rome, 1968).

Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations: “Food composition tables - Minerals and vitamins for international use”, in Nutritional Studies, 1954, No. 11.

Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations: Production yearbook (Rome, 1979).

Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations: Processing and storage of foodgrains by rural families (Rome, 1979).

Gerstenkorn, P.; Swingelberg: “Maize conditioning and milling” in M�hle und Mischfuttertechnik, 1975, Vol. 6, No. 112, pp. 66-70.

Groupe de recherches et d'�changes technologiques: Fichier technique du d�veloppement, fascicule No. 29 (Paris, 1983).

Harper, M.; Working Paper 174 (Nairobi, Institute for Development Studies, Nairobi University, 1974).

Inglett, G.E,: Corn: Culture, processing, products (Westport, Connecticut, Avi Publishers, 1970).

Intermediate Technology Development Group: Tools for agriculture - A Buyers' guide to low-cost agricultural implements, compiled by John Boyd (London, Intermediate Technology Publications, 1976).

Jobs and Skills Programme for Africa: Technologies appropri�es dans les industries de transformation alimentaire et de conservation de fruits dans quatre pays de la CEAO - Haute-Volta, Mali, Niger, Senegal (Addis-Ababa, ILO, 1982).

JASPA: Appropriate technologies in cereal milling and fruit processing industries - A comparative sub-regional study of four East African countries - Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania and Zambia (Addis-Ababa, ILO, 1981).

James, A.W.: Personal Communication (1982).

Kent, N.L.: Technology of cereals (London, Pergamon Press, 1966)

Lindblad, C.; Druben, L.: Small farm grain storage (Arlington, Virginia, VITA, 1977), vol. I, II and III.

Kaplinsky, R.: “A country case study: Food processing in Kenya”, in C.G. Baron (ed.): Technology, Employment and Basic Needs in Food Processing in Developing Countries (Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1980).

Kent-Jones, D.W.; Amos, A.J.: Modern cereal chemistry (Sixth Ed.) (London, Food Trade Press, 1967).

Ndambuki, W.W.: “Meet Kenya's very own energy pioneer”, in Daily Nation (Nairobi), 30 Oct. 1981.

O'Kelly, E.: “Processing and storage of foodgrains by rural families”, in Agricultural Services Bulletin (Rome, FAO, 1979).

Olatunji, O.; Edwards, C.; Koleoso, O.A.; “Processing of maize and sorghum in Nigeria for human consumption” in Journal of Food Technology, 1980, Vol. 1, No. 15, pp. 85-92.

Schlage, C.: “Polished versus whole maize; Some nutritional and economic implications of the traditional processing of maize in North Eastern Nigeria”, Research Report No. 2 (Dar-es-Salaam, Bureau of Resource Assessment and Land Use Planning, 1968).

Soza, R.F.; Willena, D.: Solar grain dryers. Paper presented at the 25th annual meeting of the Central American Cooperative Programme for the Improvement of Food Cultivation held in Tegucicalpa in 1979 (Honduras, PCCMCA, 1979).

Schoonhoven, A.V.; Horber, E.; Mills, R.B.: “Conditions modifying expression of resistance in maize kernels to the maize weevil” in Environmental Entomology, 1976, No. 5.

Stewart, F.: “The choice of technique: Maize grinding in Kenya”, in Technology and underdevelopment (London, Macmillan, 1977).

Temple, M.: “Nepalese water mill”, in Appropriate Technology (London), 1974, Vol. 1, No. 3, p. 15.

Tropical Products Institute: A wooden hand-held maize sheller (London, TPI, 1977).

Uhlig, S.J.; Bhat, B.A.: The choice of technique in maize milling (Edinburgh, Scotland, Scottisch Academic Press, 1979).

Vojnovich, C.; Pfeifer, V.F.; Griffin, E.L.; “Reducing microbial populations in dry milled corn products”, in Cereal Science Today, 1978, Vol. 12, No. 15, pp. 401-407.

Waelti, H.; Buckle, W.F.: “Factors affecting corn kernel damage in combine cylinders”, in Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 1967.

Walker, D.J.: Report of the Swaziland rural grain storage project - 1972-1975 (Mbabane, Ministry of Agriculture, 1975).

Wells, G.H.; “The dry side of corn milling”, in Cereal Foods World, 1979, Vol. 8, No. 24, pp. 333-340.

Zambia Industrial and Minining Corporation Ltd.: Maize meal, maize milling: A national problem (Lusaka, 1978).

APPENDIX IV: GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS

Alkali

A soluble hydroxide of a metal



Ambient

Temperature of the surrounding air



Amylopectin

A branched-chained polymer of glucose



Amylose

A straight-chained polymer of glucose



Aspiration

The removal of small particles by suction



Carborundum

Trade name designating a proprietary range of products, e.g. silicon carbide



Corneous

Resembling horn in texture



Cyclone

Conical vessed used to extract dust by centrifugal action



Decortication

Removal of the outer layers from the grain



Emery

A finely granulated admixture of corundum (oxide of aluminium) and either magnetite or haematite



Germination

The beginning of growth of the embryo of a seed



Inflorescence

In flowering plants, the part of the shoot which bears the flowers



Monoecious

Having separate male and female flowers on the same individual plant



Pellagra

A chronic disease due to general dietary deficiency. It is characterised by gastro-intestinal disturbances, a redness of the skin, mental depression and paralysis



Pericarp

Wall of a fruit or seed, if derived from the ovary wall



Plumule

The rudimentary shoot in the seed embryo



Radicle

The rudimentary root in the seed embryo



Tempering

The addition of water to grain to increase its moisture content



Testa

The seed coat, several layers of cells in thickness derived from the outer layers of the ovule



Tiller

A branch produced from the base of a stem



Viscosity

The resistance of a fluid to flow



Whole meal

The milled product containing all parts of the grain

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